Emotion and Motivation


Emotion: four- part process that involves physiological arousal, subjective feelings, cognitive interpretation, and behavioral expression, all of which interact, rather than occurring in a linear sequence.

Display rules: the permissible ways of displaying emotions in a particular society.

Lateralization of emotion: different influences of the two brain hemispheres on various emotions. The left hemisphere apparently influences positive emotions (happiness) and the right hemisphere influences negative emotions (anger).

James- Lange theory: the proposal that an emotion- provoking stimulus produces a physical response that, in turn, produces an emotion.

Cannon- Bard Theory: the counter-proposal that an emotional feeling and an internal physiological response occur at the same time: one is not the cause of the other.

Two-factor theory: the proposal claiming that emotion results from the cognitive appraisal of both physical and arousal (factor 1) and emotion-provoking stimulus (factor 2)

Cognitive appraisal theory: theory of emotion which theorizes that emotions have pairs. When one is triggered, the other is suppressed(for example, whe we feel happy, sad is the suppressed memory)

Inverted U function: describes the relationship between arousal and performance. Both low and high levels of arousal produce lower performance than does a moderate level of arousal.

Sensation seekers: In Zuckerman’s theory individuals who have a biological need for higher levels of stimulation than do other people.

Emotional Intelligence: the ability to understand and control emotional responses.

Polygraph: a device that records or graphs many measures of physical arousal, such as heart rate, breathing, perspiration, and blood pressure. Is often called “a lie detector” , even though it is really an arousal detector.

Motivation: all the processes involved in starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities.

Drive: biologically instigated motivation.

Motive: An internal mechanism that selects and directs behavior. The term motive is often used in the narrower sense of a motivational process that is learned, rather than biologically based (as the drives).

Intrinsic motivation: the desire to engage in an activity for its own sake, rather than for some external consequence, such as a reward.

Extrinsic motivation: the desire to engage in an activity to achieve an external consequence, such as a reward.

Conscious motivation: having the desire to engage in an activity and being aware of the desire.

Unconscious motivation: having the desire to engage in an activity and being consciously unaware of the desire. Freud’s psychoanalytical theory emphasized unconscious motivation.

Instinct theory: the now out-mode view that certain behaviors are completely determined by innate factors. The instinct theory was flowed because it overlooked the effects of learning and because it over looked the effects of learning and because it employed instincts merely as labels, rather than as explanations for behavior.

Fixed- action patterns: genetically based behaviors, seen across a species, that can be set off by a specific stimulus. The concept of fixed-action patterns has replaced the older notion of instincts.

Need: in drive theory, a need is a biological imbalance (such as dehydration) that threatens survival if the need unmet.

Homeostasis: the body’s tendency to maintain a biologically balanced condition, especially with regard to nutrients, water and temperature.

Locus of control: an individual’s sense of where his or her life influences originate-internally or externally.

Hierarchy of needs: In Maslow’s theory, the notion that needs occur in priority order, with the biological needs as the most basic.

Overjustification: the process by which extrinsic (external rewards) can sometimes displace internal motivation, as when a child receives money for playing videogames.

Need for achievement: In Murray and McClolland’s theory, a mental state that produces a psychological motive to excel or to reach some goal.

Individualism: the view, common in the Euro- American world,that places a high value on individual achievement and distinction.

Collectivism: the view, common in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the middle East, that values group loyalty and pride over individual distinction.

Set point: refers to the tendency of the body to maintain certain level of body fat and body weight.

Volumetric thirst: a drop in extracellular fluid levels.

Osmotic Thirst: a drop in intracellular fluid levels.

Sexual response cycle: the four-stage sequence of arousal, plateau, orgasm, and resolution occurring both in men and women.

Sexual Scripts: socially learned ways of responding in sexual situations.

Approach-approach conflict: a conflict in which one must choose between two equally attractive options.

Approach-avoidance conflict: a conflict in which both of there are both appealing and but there are negative aspects to the decision to be made.

Avoidance-avoidance conflict: a conflict in which one must choose between options that have both many attractive and many negative aspects.

Sexual orientation: one’s erotic attraction toward members of the same sex (a homosexual orientation), the opposite sex (a heterosexual orientation) or both sexes (a bisexual orientation).

Stress: a physical and mental response to a challenging or threatening situation.

Stressor: a stressful stimulus, a condition demanding adaptation.

Traumatic stressor: a situation that threatens one’s physical safety, arousing feelings of fear, horror or helplessness.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): delayed stress reaction in which an individual involuntarily reexperiences emotional, cognitive, and behavioral of the past trauma.

Acute stress: a temporary pattern of stressor-activated arousal with a distinct on set and limited duration.

Chronic stress:  continuous stressful arousal persisting overtime.

Fight-or-flight response: sequence of internal processes preparing an organism for struggle or escape.

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): Pattern of general physical responses that take essentially the same form in responding to any serious chronic stressor.

Alarm reaction: first stage of Gas, during which the body mobilizes its resources to cope with a stressor.

Stage of resistance: second stage of the GAS, during which the body adapts to and uses resources to cope with a stressor.

Stage of exhaustion: third stage of GAS during which the body depletes its resources in responding to an ongoing stressor.

Tend-and-befriend model: stress response model proposing that females are biologically predisposed to respond to threat by nurturing and protecting offspring and seeking social support.

Immune system: bodily organs and responses that protect the body from foreign substances and threats.

Psychoneuroimmunology: multidisciplinary field that studies the influences of mental states on the immune system.

Cytokines:hormonelike chemicals facilitating communication between brain and immune system.

Type A: behavior pattern characterized intense, angry, competitive, or perfectionist.

Type B: behavior pattern characterized by relaxed, unstressed approach to life.

Learned helplessness: pattern of failure to respond to noxious stimuli after an organism learns it responses are ineffective.

Flow: in Csikszentmihalyis theory, an intense focus activity accompanied by increased creativity and near- ecstatic feelings. Flow involves intrinsic motivation.

Study Guide


Recall: From the evolutionary perspective, we can understand emotions as helping organisms identify?

A/= E) Important and recurring situations.

Recall: which one of the following is not one of the culturally universal emotions identified by Ekman’s research?

A/= D)Regret

Analysis: Plutchik would say that regret is?

A/= C) A combination of more basic emotions.

Recall: In which respect do men and women differ in their emotional expressions?

A/= B) Certain emotional disorders, such as depression, occur more often in women.

Understanding the core concept: What is the adaptive value of communicating our emotional states?

A/= C) It allows us to anticipate each other’s responses and so to live more easily in groups.

Recall: During emotional arousal, the _____________ nervous system sends messages to the internal organs.

A/= C) autonomic

Application: We would be most likely to misattribute the source of our arousal when?

A/= A) taking a drug, such as a diet pill, that has the unexpected side effect of physical arousal.

Recall: In the field of emotion, theorists have long debated whether?

A/= C) cognition and emotion are independent of each other.

Understanding the core concept: Emotions result from an interaction of biological arousal, subjective feelings, cognitive interpretation, and behavioral expression. Which two of these are emphasized in the two-factor theory of emotion?

A/= A) subjective feelings and behavioral expression

Recall: People with emotional intelligence…

A/= C) know how to control their emotional responses.

Recall: When lying by giving false information, you are likely to?

A/= B) become more constrained in your gesturing.

Recall: “Lie detectors” detect?

A/= E) physical arousal.

Application: Psychological research suggests that it might be best to handle your feelings of anger toward a friend by?

A/= C) calmly telling your friend that you feel angry.

Understanding the core concept: Research suggests that the ability to control one’s emotional responses is?

A/= D) a skill that can be learned.

Recall: Psychologists use the concept of motivation in several important ways. Which of the following is not among them?

A/= D) to explain reflexive responses.

Recall: One reason the term instinct has dropped out of favor with psychologists is that?

A/= C) the term became a label for behavior, rather than an explanation for behavior.

Analysis: What makes Maslow’s theory of motivation different from most other theories?

A/= B) it deals with a wide range of motives.

Understanding the core concept: Motivation takes many forms, but all involve inferred mental processes that select and direct our behavior. Thus, the psychology of motivation attempts to explain why a certain __________ is selected.

A/= B) action.

Recall: Which of the following is often considered a biological drive?

A/= A) hunger

Recall: How did Murray and McClelland measure n Ach?

A/= B) with the Thematic Apperception Test

Recall: Which motive seems to regulate behavior in order to maintain a certain physical condition in the body, known as a set point?

A/= B) hunger

Analysis: Which of the following motives would most likely be influenced by living in an individualistic culture versus a collectivist culture?

A/= E) n Ach

Understanding the core concept: In which of the following would biological factor be least important in accounting for the motivation differences between individuals?

A/= C) n Ach

While emotion emphasizes ________, motivation emphasizes ______.

A/= B) arousal/action

Which of the following is the region of the brain most involved in emotions, attack, self-defense, and flight?

A/= B) the limbic system

Which theory of emotion first called attention to the idea that our physical responses can influence our emotions?

A/= E) the James-Lange theory

Unlike achievement motivation, hunger and sex have a strong __________ basis.

A/= C) biological

People who are high in the need for achievement have been found to be more likely to?

A/= D) get better grades in school.

According to psychologists, which of the following experiences would be considered an example of stress?

A/= E) your arousal and behaviors when you are threatened by a stranger.

Like the experience of emotion, the physical response to stress almost always begins with?

A/= B) a state of arousal.

In the ____ stage of Selye’sGAS, the organism’s defenses are fully engaged and the organism shows signs of recovery from the initial stress.

A/= C) resistance

Which of the following stressors is the type that would most likely cause the immune system to malfunction and even cause harm?

A/= B) caring for a dying family member for a prolonged period.

Amanda possesses many type A personality traits; this means Amanda has a higher probability of suffering from _______ than non-type A individuals.

A/= A) heart disease


  1. Which sort of personality theory
    would most likely emphasize unconscious motivation?

Psychodynamic theory


  1. List one of an ego defense
    mechanism that may cause us to forget unpleasant or threatening experiences



  1. Critics fault Freud’s
    psychoanalytic theory because it?

Has little basis in scientific


  1. One of the biggest differences
    between Freud and Jung can be seen in Jung’s idea of?

The collective unconscious


  1. The humanistic theorists were
    the first to emphasize?

The healthy personality


  1. According to Rogers, children
    may grow up with feelings of guilt and anxiety in homes where?

Parental love is conditional on
good behavior


  1. Reciprocal determinism involves
    the interaction of?

Cognitions, behavior, and the


  1. List one not of the big five
    personality factors



  1. You implicit theory of
    personality would help? When?

It would. When you realize that
a friend needs comforting when she or he loses her or his job



  1. What do psychodynamic theories



  1. Freud believed that mental
    disorders stem from conflicts and drives that are repressed in the?



  1. Give one behavior a Freudian say
    is driven by Thanatos

A violent assault



  1. Which is the ego defense
    mechanism on which the Rorschach and TAT are based?



  1. If you react strongly to angry outbursts in others, you may be struggling with which Jugan’s archetype?

The shadow


  1. Karen Horney believed that the
    main forces behind our behaviors are?



  1. The humanistic theorists were very
    different from the psychodynamic theorists, because of their emphasis on?

The healthy personality


  1. Our expectations of reward
    punishment play a major role in?

The cognitive theories


  1. What do the psychodynamic
    humanistic and cognitive theories of personality have in common?

They all acknowledge the
internal mental process underlying our personality in their behaviors


  1. Temperament refers to
    personality characteristics that?

Have a substantial biological


20. A friend of yours always seems
agitated an anxious even when nothing in the circumstances would provoke such
as a response. Which one of the bug five traits applies to this characteristic
of your friend?



  1. What does Walter Mischel argues?

That emotion is less important
than the situation


22. What is found in most
psychodynamic humanistic and cognitive theories but is not found in most
temperature, traits and type theories?

A description of the processes
of development and change underlying personality


23. What cultural differences differ
on personality?

Culture differ on other
personality, related to individualism, collectivism


24. What does a cultural difference

-status of different age groups
and sexes

-romantic love


-locus of control

-thinking versus feeling


25. What would you expect to find
the concept of self emphasized in?

An individual culture


26. Cross – cultural psychologists
says that basic distinction among cultures their emphasis on?

Individualism of collectivism


27. You are making the fundamental
attribution error when?

You think someone is clumsy when
he or she trips and drop his or her books


28. Implicit personality theories

Opinions that people privately
hold about others but will not express openly


29. Which sort of personality theory
would most likely emphasize unconscious motivation?

Psychodynamic theory


30. Does intelligence one of the big
five personality factors?



  1. How would you apply theory of
    personality to help someone?

When a friend of mine needs
comfort when she or he got a financial problem or emotional


32. List one of Jung’s idea

The collective unconscious


33. List two personality functions?

-Perceiving functions: sensing and
intuition (trust in concrete, sensory-oriented facts vs. trust in abstract
concepts and imagined possibilities)

-Judging functions: thinking and
feeling (basing decisions primarily on logic vs. considering the effect on


34. What are the Psychoanalytic theories?

Psychoanalytic theories explain
human behavior in terms of the interaction of various components of



35. Who was the founder of the
psychoanalytic school?

Sigmund Freud was the founder of
this school.


36. Which are the three significant
components that Freud divides the human personality?

Freud divides human personality
into three significant components: the id, ego, and super-ego.








37. Types of personality tests?

There are two major types of
personality tests:

-Projective tests assume personality is primarily unconscious and
assess an individual by how he or she responds to an ambiguous stimulus, like
an ink blot. The idea is unconscious needs will come out in the person’s
response, e.g. an aggressive person may see images of destruction.

-Objective tests assume personality is consciously accessible and
measure it by self-report questionnaires. Research on psychological assessment
has generally found objective tests are more valid and reliable than projective


38. Which is the five dimension
personality Lewis Goldberg proposed?

They are named the “Big Five”:

Openness to
the tendency to be imaginative, independent, and interested in variety vs.
practical, conforming, and interested in routine.

-Conscientiousness: the tendency to be organized,
careful, and disciplined vs. disorganized, careless, and impulsive.

-Extraversion: the tendency to be sociable,
fun-loving, and affectionate vs. retiring, somber, and reserved.

-Agreeableness: the tendency to be softhearted,
trusting, and helpful vs. ruthless, suspicious, and uncooperative.

-Neuroticism: the tendency to be calm, secure, and
self-satisfied vs. anxious, insecure, and self-pitying


39. What is personality genetic?

genetics is a
scientific field that examines the relationship between personality
and genetics. Interest in the field is also driven by
molecular genetics and evolutionary ideas about personality.








40. Which is the
dimension of personality?

– maintaining constant enjoyment and awe of life. These individuals often
experienced a “peak experience”. He defined a peak experience as an
“intensification of any experience to the degree there is a loss or
transcendence of self”. A peak experience is one in which an individual
perceives an expansion of his or herself, and detects a unity and
meaningfulness in life. Intense concentration on an activity one is involved
in, such as running a marathon, may invoke a peak experience.

and problem centered – they have tendency to be concerned with
“problems” in their surroundings.

– they accept their surroundings and what cannot be changed.

hostile sense of humor/democratic – they do not like joking about
others, which can be viewed as offensive. They have friends of all backgrounds
and religions and hold very close friendships.